Yoga became popular as a system of physical exercise across the Western world. Yoga in Indian traditions, however, is more than physical exercise; it has a meditative and spiritual core.

One of the six major orthodox schools of Hinduism is also called Yoga, which has its own epistemology and metaphysics, and is closely related to Hindu Samkhya philosophy.

Many studies have tried to determine the effectiveness of yoga as a complementary intervention for cancer, schizophrenia, asthma, and heart disease.

The results of these studies have been mixed and inconclusive, with cancer studies suggesting none to unclear effectiveness, and others suggesting yoga may reduce risk factors and aid in a patient's psychological healing process. On December 1, 2016, yoga was listed by UNESCO as an Intangible cultural heritage.


Tantra as genre of literature in Hinduism have been influential to its arts, icons and temple building practices Hindu puja, temples and iconography are tantric in nature.

The Hindu texts that describe these topics are called Tantras.

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